Acupuncture activates the in-built Neuro Peptide system and influences the body's pain regulatory system by changing the pain signals at various levels of the central nervous system. Two model systems of acupuncture analgesia have been advanced: an endorphin-dependent system and a monoamine-dependent system.
Acupuncture Needling has effects on Nociceptive, Proprioceptive and Autonomic Nerve pathways to increase Enkephalins and Dynorphins in Spine and Midbrain, and to raise Endorphins in the Hypothalamus Pituitary region.
The flow of enkephalins in midbrain causes retrograde release of Mono amines, Serotonin and Nor Adrenaline in the Spine, which inhibits Spinal Pain Transmission. Endorphins also inhibit Substance P, involved in pain and inflammation. Endorphins exist in the Immune system cells also, thus causing Immune Enhancement effects during Acupuncture.
Acupuncture or Acupressure simultaneously activates multiple systems in the body's physiology:
a) The nervous system, which includes peripheral afferent transmission, peri-vascular sympathetic fiber conduction, and the central neuro-humoral and neuropeptide mechanisms.
b) The blood circulation system, which transmits the bio-molecular elements locally and centrally, along with the biochemical and cellular changes stimulated by acupuncture.
c) The lymphatic system, which serves as a medium for ionic flow along fascial planes and peri-vascular interstitial fluid circulation.
Blocking of the Biochemical messages is felt as Symptom, Pain or Uneasiness by the sick individual, at early stages. The patho-physiological changes are more pronounced at advanced levels. With increasing Life style irregularities, Pollution, Stress and Satellite influences, diseases keep a raising trend.
Acupuncture Channels are Functional pathways of Bio-Chemical Energy transmission. Cures are effected in the body through Bio chemical mediators and binding receptors. Similarly, Acupuncture treatment sorts out the Blocker Errors along the Functional Channels, for better and permanent cure, without side effects. Sometimes the cure may be partial, but the relief is more.
C-Fos is a primary Gene Protein and a marker for increased metabolic activity, accompanying mRNA increases in Brain Cells, which explains "Long Term Effects" of Acupuncture. Involvement of -Opioid Receptors in PAG Area were found to cause the Blood Pressure responses. Decreased EEG abnormalities and seizures were accompanied by decreased mRNA, as Enkephalins dropped and Dynorphins increased in the Hippocampus accompanied Brain normalization.
Following Acupuncture, mRNA gets elevated for Pro-Opio-Melono-Cortin, which metabolizes to Endorphin and ACTH in equal proportions. ACTH and MSH facilitate learning, while Vasopressin consolidates Memory. Thus, Acupuncture can enhance Learning, Memory, Happiness and such subjective psychological defects. These three hormones stimulate nerve centers and suppress Morphine Effect in De-Addiction treatment.
Some Acu points are Adrenergic and some Cholinergic. A few of them are Dopaminergic. Certain Seratonergic points completely cure Headaches, Fatigue, Hypo thyroidism, Lethargy, Infertility etc.
Acupuncture is capable of influencing Cardiac rate, Peristalsis, Absorption of nutrients, Secretion and Re-absorption in Kidneys, Liver functions and almost all the sphincters in the body, through neuromuscular transmission.
Acupuncture has profound effect on Resting membrane potential of Cells and the Na+ - K+ - ATPase pump. By stimulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum, various receptor mechanisms are tuned. The points also possess a Time bound sensitivity based on a 24 hour Organ clock.
Analgesic effect is mediated through release of Opiate mediators, which act on the synapses in the pain pathway.
Sedative effect is the result of suppression of Delta and Theta wave activity and release of Melatonin and similar mediators.
Homeostatic effect is the adjustment of the internal environment towards a state of normal balance. The effect of balancing is felt in the Respiratory centers, Vagal tone, Blood buffer properties, Excretory functions, Osmotic pressure etc.
Immune Enhancing effect improves body resistance to disease by increasing Leucocytes, Antibodies, Gamma Globulins etc, by activating the Reticular Endothelial system.
Psychological effect is the action on the Midbrain Reticular Formation and specific areas to enhance the level of Dopamine, Nor epinephrine etc.
Motor Recovery effect is the Anti dromic stimulation of the Anterior horn cells and the re activation of muscles through a bio-feedback operation via the Renshaw and Cajal cells of the Spinal column.